Cooling of poultry farms and animals
Fogging cooling systems allow reducing temperature in the poultry house in the regions with hot climate. To enhance the productivity of poultry houses the temperature is to be under control. Depending on the age of fowls as well as temperature and humidity outside the necessary temperature may be set inside. Fogging system along with the air exhausters make necessary climate conditions inside. The fogging systems are elaborated for optimal cooling and are of high efficiency and long term life. To look through the gallery of system applying. Cooling of fowls in the poultry houses.
Normal temperature of fowl’s body is 41 degree centigrade. The most comfortable conditions for the life and fast growing is the temperature from 10 to 20 degrees Centigrade, that are measured inside poultry house at the level of fowl. The fowls may establish to the temperatures 20-25 degrees, but when the temperature is higher the temperature stress is obvious. Any activity, for example eating, increases heat production. The heavier fowl produces more heat, and 5-6-7-week-old broiler chick is subject to thermal heat. The real danger is when the temperature is higher than 30 degrees. If the fowl’s body temperature reaches 47 degrees, it will die of asystole. The ideal temperature for the laying fowls and producers is 20-25 degrees. As they have more time to get accustomed to the high temperature and humidity, there is tolerance but they still suffer from thermal stress.
However the laying hen can’t adapt to fast and severe term changing that’s why the eggs productivity drops off.
When the temperature reaches 24 degrees, the importance of body thermal loss due to increased evaporated cooling from lungs is as important as for broiler chicks. The first reaction of hens on the high temperatures is reduction of eating – by 15% if the temperature rises by 10 degrees. Usually the period of maximum thermal stress is from midday till 6 pm, that’s why the eating is to be stopped for 2 hours in the afternoon. Growth slowdown, smaller eggs, weaker egg crack, slower reproducibility – the consequences of thermal stress.
Thermal heat marks:
Breathlessness; heavy breathing; the winds opened out;
Stupor; stagger and convulsions;
Lowness and lethargy;
Bird cannibalism, mortality;
Light weight, bad color, calloused skin;
Lowering of egg mass due to unobvious reason;
Small eggs, bad quality of egg crack;
Fertility lowering due to less treading;
Bad quality of seminal fluid; infertility of female;
Evaporation cooling technology – let’s call it EC – turned into advanced way of environment control in heat. EC is widely used by boilers’ producers in the USA and other countries. However effective usage of EC demands carefully specified installation and correct control. The following review of the EC basics presents some main recommendations for those who raises the poultry and who wants to take the best from evaporation cooling.
The first to be understood is that all the modern time of EC systems work as an addition to ducted fan. The air flow is more important than any element of the area appropriate for hot weather. If you are lack of fans or they do poor work, you will get more heat that the cooling system will fail to overcome. If there is not enough air speed to allow good cooling by wind, the system of EC will not be able to reduce the temperature till the comfort lever for the poultry.
That means that the main demand for the successful EC is the area designed, in action and is subject to service for effective tunnel ventilation. The best variant if the area was constructed from the very beginning with the tunnel ventilation and EC, because to complete the construction will be difficult. In any case the EC system may be successful only with suitable area and ventilation system. As for the placement, the construction is to be pressure-proof, with no air escaping.
What cooling level can be reached?
First of all we are to understand that the aim of EC is not to lower the temperature from 95-100 degrees Fahrenheit (35-38 degrees centigrade) till 70 (21C). It is impossible and of no need. As the system works along with ventilation, we only need to lower temperature till the level when the ventilation effect will allow the poultry feels as when it is 70 degrees. For example if the temperature is 95, the EC system is able to lower it by 12 degrees (6,5 C), so we’ll get lowering of effective temperature by 10 degrees (5,5C) and the fowls will feel the temperature 73 degrees (23C). Such kind of cooling is expected from correctly designed EC systems and in hot days. Certainly there will be days when the temperature will raise till 100 degrees and higher and we’ll not be able to guarantee comfortable conditions for the fowls. However, there will be less stress and the mortality level will be lower than usually in such hot days.
All the EC systems work for the water contacts with the warm incoming air, in order the water transpires in the air. This cools the air as its thermal energy helps water vaporize. Every gallon of water takes 8700 thermal units of air.
The key moments of effective tunnel cooling by evaporation.
Air flow is more important for good poultry house in hot weather. Cooling by evaporation enlarges the possibilities of tunnel ventilation.
The aim of cooling by evaporation in tunneled area is to lower temperature inside and reach the temperature 80-84 degrees (27-29 C), when the fowls feel comfortable. We don’t need to lower temperature till 70 degrees (21C). The air relative humidity (the difference between the temperatures of dry and wet bulb thermometer) predicts available estimated cooling potential.
Practical cooling depends on efficiency of EC system. As the efficiency of system is usually from 50% till 80%, in the South-East of USA depending on system the cooling by 7-12 degrees can be reached.
If the poultry house contains the fowls with full coats, the EC systems should be switched on when the temperature is 80-84 but anyway before the thermal fatigue appears.
The water transport and the system should cope with transport of the whole volume of water to reach the temperature desired. At least several hundreds of gallons per hour, in order the EC system not to be restricted by water. Inside fogging systems and the systems of spray-type panels are cheaper but they demand much more careful control, than the recycling systems.
The main aspect of panels cooling is the total area should match the capacity of installed fans in order to get the necessary effect of cooling, and statistic pressure should not exceed 0.10 inches. The most widespread mistake in installation of EC system is not sufficient area of installed panels.
Usually the high statistic pressure is got in result and the efficiency of fans, air speed and cooling is not as necessary. By the time the systems get older and gather the dust, water grass and mineral deposits the efficiency decreases, static pressure raises.
Fogging cooling of aminals
The widespread use of cooling fogging systems is marked in stock-rearing industry as well as on the stock-rearing farms.
In both cases the cooling systems really improve the productivity capacity. Due to flash evaporation technology the evaporation isn’t accompanied by excessive rising of air humidity that helps to escape the contagion or insanitation as can be a result of using less effective cooling systems.
In case of cattle stock the cooling systems reduce thermal load, improving the metabolism. As a result of this the milkness improves and the animals eat more food, gain in weight faster and can give a birth in more youthful stage.
Use of cooling in pig farming and horse-raising
Cooling fogging systems are used also in pig farming and horse-raising. As in case of cattle stock and fowls the main advantage is the improving of environment conditions. The effect from improving of living conditions is especially appreciable when raising expensive race horses. When lowering the temperature on the pig farm, the periods of animals feeding will be improved that will result in gaining weight faster.
Fogging systems improve the conditions for breeding of all the animals.
They are very handy while installing in the cages, dog-holes, horse stables, zoos and animal shelters.
They protect from harmful effect of extreme conditions that can occur in summer. These systems drive away flying insects and help fight against dust or even escape the dust or other particles in the air.